手机APP下载

您如今的地位: 首页 > 专业四级 > 专四听力 > 英语专四听力真题 > 注释

2018年英语专业四级听力真题 演讲

来源:可可英语 编辑:Melody   VIP收费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
 下载MP3到电脑  批量下载MP3和LRC得手机

The Linguistic Gift of Babies

婴儿的说话禀赋
Good morning, everyone. In today's lecture, I'm going to talk about something you can't see. That is, what's going on in the little brain of a baby.
大年夜家早上好。在明天的课上,我要讲一些你们看不到的器械。也就是:婴儿的大年夜脑里是若何运转的。
For example, how babies learn a language.
例如,婴儿若何进修一门说话。
It is always a question people show great interest in.
这是一个大年夜家很感兴趣的成绩。
Babies and children are geniuses until they turn seven, and then there's a systematic decline.
婴儿和七岁之前的儿童都是天赋,七岁后就会出现体系性的阑珊。
Work in my lab is focused on the first critical period in development, and that is the period in which babies try to master which sounds are used in their language.
我的实验室里任务的重点就是发育的第一个关键时代,在这个关键时代,婴儿试图控制在他们的说话中用到的音。
We think, by studying how the sounds are learned, we'll have a model for the rest of language, and perhaps for critical periods that may exist in childhood for social, emotional and cognitive development.
我们认为,经过过程研究声响是若何习得的,我们将建立一个实用于说话其他方面的模型,也能够实用于儿童时代能够存在的社交、情感和认知生长关键时代的模型。
So we've been studying the babies by conducting an experiment.
所以我们一向在经过过程实验来研究这些婴儿。
During our experiment, the baby, usually a six-monther, sits on a parent's lap, and we train them to turn their heads when a sound changes—like from "ah" to "ee".
在我们的实验中,婴儿,平日是6个月大年夜的婴儿,坐在父母的膝盖上,我们练习他们当音变更的时辰转过火去,比如从“啊”变成“咿”的时辰。
If they do so at the appropriate time, the black box lights up and a panda bear pounds a drum. What have we learned?
假设他们在精确的时辰如许做,黑盒子就会亮起来,熊猫就会敲鼓。我们学到了甚么?
Well, babies all over the world are what I like to describe as "citizens of the world".
全球的婴儿就是我所说的“世界公平易近”。
They can discriminate all the sounds of all languages, no matter what country we're testing and what language we're using, and that's remarkable because you know, I can't do that.
他们可以辨别一切说话的一切音,不论我们测试的是哪个国度,用的是甚么说话,这很了不得,由于你知道,我做不到。
We're culture-bound listeners.
我们的听力遭到了文明限制。
We can discriminate the sounds of our own language, but not those of foreign languages.
我们能分辨出本身说话的音,却分辨不出外语的音。
So the question arises: When do those citizens of the world turn into the language-bound listeners that we are?
所以成绩就来了:这些世界公平易近甚么时辰会变成我们如许只能听懂某一种说话的人?
And the answer: before their first birthdays.
答案是:在他们一周岁之前。
What you see here is performance on that head-turn task for babies tested in Tokyo and the United States, here in Seattle, as they listened to the "ra" and "la" — sounds important to English, but not to Japanese.
这里是东京和美国西雅图参加测试的婴儿在回头实验中的表示,此时他们听到了“ra”和“la”,这是英语中很重要的发音,日语中却不重要。
So at six to eight months, the babies are totally equivalent.
所以在6到8个月大年夜的时辰,婴儿们的表示是完全一样的。
Two months later, something, something incredible occurs.
两个月后,一些弗成思议的任务产生了。
The babies in the United States are getting a lot better while babies in Japan are getting a lot worse.
美国的婴儿表示愈来愈好,而日本的婴儿表示愈来愈差。
So the question is: What's happening during this critical two-month period?
成绩是,在这两个月的关键时代产生了甚么?
We know this is the critical period for sound development, but what's going on up there?
我们知道这是辩声才能生长的关键时代,然则毕竟产生了甚么?
Maybe there are two things going on.
或许产生了两件事。
The first is that the babies are listening intently to us, and they're taking statistics as they listen to us talk—they're taking statistics.
起首,婴儿们全神灌注地听我们措辞,他们一边听我们措辞一边做统计——他们在做统计。
That is to say, the two babies listen to their own mother speaking motherese—the universal language we use when we talk to kids.
也就是说,两个婴儿听他们本身的母亲说妈妈语——我们和孩子措辞时应用的通用语。
During the production of speech, when babies listen, what they're doing is taking statistics, that is, sound distribution on the language that they hear.
在产生说话的过程当中,当婴儿听的时辰,他们所做的就是做统计,也就是说,他们听到的说话的声响分布。
And those sound distributions grow and babies absorb more.
这些声响分布赓续完美,婴儿就接收更多。
And what we've learned is that babies are sensitive to the statistics, and the statistics of Japanese and English are very, very different.
我们发明,婴儿对统计数据很敏感,并且日语和英语的统计数据异常异常不合。
I mean, the sound distribution of both languages is different.
我的意思是,两种说话的声响分布是不合的。
So babies absorb the statistics of the language and it changes their brains;
所以婴儿会接收说话的统计数据,这会改变他们的大年夜脑;
it changes them from the citizens of the world to the culture-bound listeners that we are because we as adults are no longer absorbing those statistics.
这使他们从世界公平易近变成了我们这些遭到文明限制只能听懂某一种说话的人,由于我们成年后就不再接收这些数据。
In this case, of course, we're arguing that the learning of language material may slow down when our distribution stabilizes.
固然,在这类情况下,我们认为声响分布趋于稳准时,说话的进修能够会减慢。
OK. Today, we just talked about a recent project on babies' language development.
好的。明天,我们方才评论辩论了比来的一个关于婴儿说话才能生长的项目。
In our next lecture, we will concentrate on bilingual people, how bilinguals keep two sets of statistics in mind at once.
鄙人一讲中,我们将集中评论辩论双语者,双语者若何同时记住两组数据。

重点单词   检查全部解释    
sensitive ['sensitiv]

想想再看

adj. 敏感的,灵敏的,易受伤害的,感光的,善解人意的

联想记忆
social ['səuʃəl]

想想再看

adj. 社会的,社交的
n. 社交聚会

 
bilingual [bai'liŋgwəl]

想想再看

adj. 双语的,用两种说话表达或书写的

联想记忆
discriminate [di'skrimineit]

想想再看

vt. 辨别,差别对待
vi. 辨别,差别对待

联想记忆
decline [di'klain]

想想再看

n. 陵夷,跌落; 暮年
v. 降低,婉谢

 
emotional [i'məuʃənl]

想想再看

adj. 情感的,情感的

 
cognitive ['kɔgnitiv]

想想再看

adj. 认知的,熟悉的,有熟悉力的

 
critical ['kritikəl]

想想再看

adj. 批驳的,决定性的,风险的,挑剔的
a

 
concentrate ['kɔnsntreit]

想想再看

v. 集中,专心,稀释
n. 稀释物

联想记忆
describe [dis'kraib]

想想再看

vt. 描述,画(尤指几何图形),说成

联想记忆


新西方专业四级Tem4搜集课程:试听更多Tem4搜集课程>>

发布评论我来讲2句

    可可英语官方微信(微旌旗灯号:ikekenet)

    每天向大年夜家推送短小精干的英语进修材料.

    添加方法1.扫描上方可可官方微信二维码。
    添加方法2.搜刮微旌旗灯号ikekenet添加便可。