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2019年英语专业四级听力真题 演讲

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Revision of Essay Drafts


Good morning everyone. In today's lecture, I'm going to talk about how to revise essay drafts and give you some tips as well. The initial revision should, of course, focus on the essay as a whole.

You'd ask yourself: do I reach my writing objective? Does my essay directly answer the question? Is my main idea clear? In order to answer these questions, what you need to do first is to revise for content. The typical rough draft may have too little and too much content all at the same time. It will have touched the surface of some portions of the essay without providing adequate explanation or convincing detail. At the same time, it may have discussed things that do not contribute significantly to your major points.
So, what is a good essay then? A good essay eliminates irrelevant material while includes all the information necessary to your main point. Your reader needs sufficient evidence to accept what you are saying. So, you have to make sure you have adequately developed and supported your main idea. Content that is unrelated to the main idea should be eliminated.
Then, what is the second step in revision? That is revise for organization. A well-organized essay will group similar ideas together and put them in the proper order. If you find it easy to produce an outline from your draft, this means that there is a clear logic to the flow of the content. And you can be reasonably certain that you have a well-ordered essay; otherwise, reorder your content.

The third step you are advised to take is to revise for length. Is your essay approximately the right length? If it is substantially longer than the stated limit, you have to consider reducing the supporting material. But even if there's no stated limit, or you are allowed to write as long as you like, please adhere to a self-imposed limit.

And unless addressing a topic that needs lengthy explanation, stick to it. The steps I have mentioned so far actually refer to revision of an essay as a whole. The next step is to revise for components of the essay including the paragraphs, sentences, and individual words. You may ask: how am I going to revise paragraphs? Well, I'd say a paragraph is not arbitrarily formed. It should revolve around an idea, a theme. Let me tell you one way to revise paragraphs: isolate a paragraph at a time, and make sure it runs smoothly and is not merely a bunch of unrelated statements put together. As for revision of sentences and words, most essay writers pile on one long sentence after another.
Well, I'd suggest you avoid this by breaking up some of the longer sentences to provide variety. Use short sentences to make important points, and long sentences to explain complex ideas. Also try to use a variety of sentence structures to maintain reader interest. Eliminate sentences that sound awkward when read aloud. For diction, a very important tip is to eliminate imprecise or wordy language. For example, use although instead of despite the fact that; try to add vigor to your writing by removing cliches, and use fresh and interesting descriptions. Try to write as much as possible with nouns and verbs than primarily with adjectives that slow the pace and reduce impact. Similarly, right in the active, not the passive voice.
我建议你经过过程分化一些长句使句式变很多样化,从而防止这类情况。用短句来强调重点,用长句来解释复杂的想法主意。也要测验测验应用各类句子构造来保持读者的兴趣。删去大年夜声朗诵时听起来很别扭的句子。关于措辞来讲,一个异常重要的建议是删除不精确或冗杂的说话。例如,应用“although”而不是“despite the fact that”;测验测验经过过程删除老生常谈来增长写作的活力,并应用新鲜风趣的描述。尽可能应用名词和动词,而不是重要用描述词来写作,这些描述词会减慢文章的推动速度,减弱文章的后果。异样地,要尽可能应用主动语态,而不是主动语态。
Now let me just repeat what I have said today. Revision is important. When you revise your draft as a whole, pay attention to content, organization and length. But don't forget to revise your essay in detail. Revision of sentences and words can also make the essay more interesting to readers.

重点单词   检查全部解释    
irrelevant [i'relivənt]


adj. 不恰当的,有关系的,不相干的

revolve [ri'vɔlv]


v. 改变,推敲,轮回

evidence ['evidəns]


n. 根据,证据
v. 证明,证明

outline ['əutlain]


n. 轮廓,大年夜纲
vt. 概述,画出轮廓

adhere [əd'hiə]


vi. 逝世守于,对 ... 忠贞,紧抓着,遵守

revise [ri'vaiz]


n. 校订,修改,再校稿
v. 校订,修改,校

smoothly [smu:ðli]


adv. 腻滑地,流畅地

theme [θi:m]


n. 标题,主题

variety [və'raiəti]


n. 多样,种类,杂耍

lengthy ['leŋθi]


adj. 冗杂的,漫长的