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2019年英语专业四级听力真题 演讲

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Revision of Essay Drafts

文章草稿的修改

Good morning everyone. In today's lecture, I'm going to talk about how to revise essay drafts and give you some tips as well. The initial revision should, of course, focus on the essay as a whole.

大年夜家早上好。在明天的讲座中,我将谈一谈若何修改文章草稿,并且也会给出一些建议。固然,最后的修改应当把重点放在文章的全体上。
You'd ask yourself: do I reach my writing objective? Does my essay directly answer the question? Is my main idea clear? In order to answer these questions, what you need to do first is to revise for content. The typical rough draft may have too little and too much content all at the same time. It will have touched the surface of some portions of the essay without providing adequate explanation or convincing detail. At the same time, it may have discussed things that do not contribute significantly to your major points.
你会问本身:我能否达到了写作目标?我的文章能否直接答复了这个成绩?我的中间思维清楚吗?为了答复这些成绩,你起首须要做的是修改内容。草稿中存在的典范成绩是能够同时包含太少和太多的内容。它能够在一些部分泛泛而谈,没有供给充分的解释和令人佩服的细节。同时,它也能够议论了太多和主题有关的信息。
So, what is a good essay then? A good essay eliminates irrelevant material while includes all the information necessary to your main point. Your reader needs sufficient evidence to accept what you are saying. So, you have to make sure you have adequately developed and supported your main idea. Content that is unrelated to the main idea should be eliminated.
那么,一篇好的文章是甚么模样的呢?一篇好的文章会省略有关的材料,同时包含一切须要的信息。你的读者须要足够的证据来接收你的谈吐。所以,你必须确保你曾经充分展开和支撑你的重要不雅点。与主旨有关的内容应当被删除。
Then, what is the second step in revision? That is revise for organization. A well-organized essay will group similar ideas together and put them in the proper order. If you find it easy to produce an outline from your draft, this means that there is a clear logic to the flow of the content. And you can be reasonably certain that you have a well-ordered essay; otherwise, reorder your content.
那么,修改的第二步是甚么呢?那就是修改构造。一篇层次清楚的文章会把类似的不雅点组织在一路,并按恰当的次序分列。假设你发明从你的草稿中很轻易列出大年夜纲,这意味着你的文章内容逻辑清楚。你可以很肯定你的文章构造优胜,不然,就要重新构造你的文章了。

The third step you are advised to take is to revise for length. Is your essay approximately the right length? If it is substantially longer than the stated limit, you have to consider reducing the supporting material. But even if there's no stated limit, or you are allowed to write as long as you like, please adhere to a self-imposed limit.

第三步,我建议你修改文章的长度。你的文章长度合适吗?假设它比请求的长度超出很多,你须要推敲增添帮助内容。然则,即使没有明白的限制,或许你可以随便书写,也请保持自我设限。
And unless addressing a topic that needs lengthy explanation, stick to it. The steps I have mentioned so far actually refer to revision of an essay as a whole. The next step is to revise for components of the essay including the paragraphs, sentences, and individual words. You may ask: how am I going to revise paragraphs? Well, I'd say a paragraph is not arbitrarily formed. It should revolve around an idea, a theme. Let me tell you one way to revise paragraphs: isolate a paragraph at a time, and make sure it runs smoothly and is not merely a bunch of unrelated statements put together. As for revision of sentences and words, most essay writers pile on one long sentence after another.
除非处理一个须要冗杂解释的话题,不然保持下去。到今朝为止,我所提到的步调都是指在文章全体基本上的修改。下一步是修改文章的构成部分,包含段落、句子和单个单词。你能够会问:我要怎样修改段落?好吧,我想说一个段落不是随便写成的。它应当环绕着一个想法主意、一个主题。让我告诉你一种修改段落的方法:一次只修改一个段落,确保它书写流畅,而不是一堆不相干的语句堆砌。关于句子和单词的修改,大年夜多半的文章作者都是对一个接一个的长句子停止修改。
Well, I'd suggest you avoid this by breaking up some of the longer sentences to provide variety. Use short sentences to make important points, and long sentences to explain complex ideas. Also try to use a variety of sentence structures to maintain reader interest. Eliminate sentences that sound awkward when read aloud. For diction, a very important tip is to eliminate imprecise or wordy language. For example, use although instead of despite the fact that; try to add vigor to your writing by removing cliches, and use fresh and interesting descriptions. Try to write as much as possible with nouns and verbs than primarily with adjectives that slow the pace and reduce impact. Similarly, right in the active, not the passive voice.
我建议你经过过程分化一些长句使句式变很多样化,从而防止这类情况。用短句来强调重点,用长句来解释复杂的想法主意。也要测验测验应用各类句子构造来保持读者的兴趣。删去大年夜声朗诵时听起来很别扭的句子。关于措辞来讲,一个异常重要的建议是删除不精确或冗杂的说话。例如,应用“although”而不是“despite the fact that”;测验测验经过过程删除老生常谈来增长写作的活力,并应用新鲜风趣的描述。尽可能应用名词和动词,而不是重要用描述词来写作,这些描述词会减慢文章的推动速度,减弱文章的后果。异样地,要尽可能应用主动语态,而不是主动语态。
Now let me just repeat what I have said today. Revision is important. When you revise your draft as a whole, pay attention to content, organization and length. But don't forget to revise your essay in detail. Revision of sentences and words can also make the essay more interesting to readers.
如今让我复述一下明天所讲的内容。修改很重要。当你以一个全体来修改草稿时,留意内容、构造和篇幅。但别忘了修改你文章的细节。修改句子和单词也能使文章对读者来讲变得加倍风趣。

重点单词   检查全部解释    
irrelevant [i'relivənt]

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adj. 不恰当的,有关系的,不相干的

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revolve [ri'vɔlv]

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v. 改变,推敲,轮回

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evidence ['evidəns]

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n. 根据,证据
v. 证明,证明

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outline ['əutlain]

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n. 轮廓,大年夜纲
vt. 概述,画出轮廓

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adhere [əd'hiə]

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vi. 逝世守于,对 ... 忠贞,紧抓着,遵守

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revise [ri'vaiz]

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n. 校订,修改,再校稿
v. 校订,修改,校

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smoothly [smu:ðli]

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adv. 腻滑地,流畅地

 
theme [θi:m]

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n. 标题,主题

 
variety [və'raiəti]

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n. 多样,种类,杂耍

 
lengthy ['leŋθi]

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adj. 冗杂的,漫长的

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