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2018年英语专业八级真题听力 Mini-lecture(2)

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The reason the chimpanzees don't do that is that they lack what psychologists and anthropologists call social learning.

黑猩猩不如许做的缘由是它们不克不及停止心思学家和人类学家所称的社会进修。
That is, they seem to lack the ability to learn from others by copying or imitating or simply watching.
也就是说,他们仿佛缺乏经过过程复制、模仿或仅仅是不雅看来向他人进修的才能。
As a result, they can't improve on others' ideas, learn from others' mistakes, or even benefit from others' wisdom.
是以,他们不克不及就他人的想法主意加以改进,不克不及从他人的缺点中进修,乃至不克不及从他人的聪明中获益。
And so they just do the same thing over and over and over again.
所以他们只是一遍又一遍地做异样的任务。
In fact, we could go away for a million years and come back and these chimpanzees would be doing the same thing with the same rocks to crack open the nuts.
现实上,我们可以过100万年再来看,这些黑猩猩会用异样的石头来敲开坚果。
Okay, so what this tells us is that, contrary to the old saying, "monkey see, monkey do," the surprise really is that all of the other animals really cannot do that -- at least not very much.
好的,这告诉我们,与“猴子看,猴子做(有样学样)”这句老话相反,一切其他植物都不克不及做到这一点——至少学到的不是很多。
But by comparison, we humans can learn.
但比拟之下,我们人类可以进修。
We can learn by watching other people and copying or imitating what they can do.
我们可以经过过程不雅察其他人,复制或模仿他们的行动来进修。
We can then choose, from among a range of options available, the best one.
然后,我们可以从一系列可供选择的选项当选择最好的一个。
We can benefit from others' ideas. We can build on their wisdom.
我们可以从他人的想法主意中获益。我们可以依附他们的聪明。
And as a result, our ideas do accumulate, and our technology progresses.
是以,我们的想法主意赓续积聚,我们的技巧赓续进步。
And this cumulative cultural adaptation, as anthropologists call this accumulation of ideas, is responsible for everything around you in your bustling and teeming everyday life.
这类积累的文明适应,正如人类学家所称的,是思维的积聚,与冷冷清清的平常生活中你四周的一切都有关。
I mean the world has changed out of all proportion to what we would recognize even 1,000 or 2,000 years ago.
我的意思是,世界在飞速变更,与我们在1000年或2000年前所熟悉到的世界曾经完全不一样了。
And all of this is because of cumulative cultural adaptation.
一切这些都是由于积累的文明适应。
For instance, the chairs you're sitting in today, the lights in this lecture hall, my microphone, the iPads and the smart phones that you carry around with you -- all are a result of cumulative cultural adaptation.
例如,你们明天坐的椅子,这个演讲厅的灯,我的麦克风,ipad和你们随身携带的智妙手机——一切这些都是积累文明适应的成果。
But, our acquisition of social learning would create an evolutionary dilemma, and the solution to the dilemma, it's fair to say, would determine not only the future course of our psychology, but the future course of the entire world.
然则,我们对社会进修才能的习得会形成一个退化窘境,而这个窘境的处理筹划,公平地说,不只会决定我们心思的将来走向,也会决定全部世界的将来走向。
And most importantly for this, it'll tell us why we have language.
最重要的是,它会告诉我们为甚么我们有说话。
And the reason that dilemma arose is, it turns out, that social learning is visual theft.
之所以会出现这类窘境,是由于,社会进修是视觉偷盗。
What I mean is, if I can learn by watching you, I can steal your best ideas, and I can benefit from your efforts, without having to put in the same time and energy that you did into developing them.
我的意思是,假设我能经过过程不雅察你来进修,我就可以盗取你最好的想法主意,我就可以从你的尽力中获益,而不消像你那样投入时间和精力去取得它们。
Social learning really is visual theft.
社交进修真的是视觉偷盗。

重点单词   检查全部解释    
contrary ['kɔntrəri]

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adj. 相反的,截然不合的
adv. 相反(

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adaptation [.ædæp'teiʃən]

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n. 改编,改编成的作品,适应

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smart [smɑ:t]

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adj. 聪慧的,时髦的,漂亮的,敏捷的,轻盈的,整洁的

 
recognize ['rekəgnaiz]

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vt. 认出,承认,承认,认识到,表示感激

 
determine [di'tə:min]

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v. 决定,决计,肯定,测定

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accumulation [ə.kju:mju'leiʃən]

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n. 积聚,积累,积聚物

 
evolutionary [.i:və'lu:ʃnəri]

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adj. 退化的,生长的,演变的

 
microphone ['maikrəfəun]

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n. 麦克风,扩音器

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benefit ['benifit]

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n. 好处,补助,保险金,义卖,义演
vt.

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solution [sə'lu:ʃən]

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n. 解答,处理办法,融化,溶液

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